Species Descriptions

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Artocarpus heterophyllus

Taxon

Family

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

Moraceae

 

bearing its huge fruit in India invaded habitat, Australia
The plant bearing its huge fruit in India
Credit: V.B. Kulshreshtha and H.S. Sur
The plant in invaded habitat, Australia
Credit: RA Drew, FAO

Common names: jackfruit, jack, jack tree, jak, jakfruit

Synonyms: Artocarpus brasiliensis Gomez., Artocarpus heterophylla Lam., Artocarpus maxima Blanco, Artocarpus philippinensis Lam., Polyphema jaca Lour., Soccus arboreus major Rumph., Artocarpus integra (Thunb.), Artocarpus integrifolia L.f., Artocarpus integrifolius auct., Artocarpus integer auct.

Life form: tree

 

Biology/Ecology:

Dispersal: Seeds spread via consumption of fruit by animals. Introduced by humans for ornamental purposes and for its very large fruit.

Reproduction: Male and female flowers borne in separate green flower heads. Yellow pollen falls from male flowers after flowering, and flowers are wind pollinated. Produces very large green or yellow fruit, each containing between 100 and 500 light brown seeds. Trees begin fruiting after 4 to 14 years, and often produce fruit all year round.

Herbivores: grazing animals eat foliage. Insect pests include boring insects, shoot-boring caterpillars, mealybugs, spittlebug, jack scale, larvae of longicorn beetles and various nematodes.

Resistant stages: Has a strong, resistant taproot. Seeds are viable for 2 to 4 weeks.

 

Habitat:

Native habitat: tropical rainforest

Habitat occupied in invaded range: lowland tropical rainforest and semi-dry forest.

Habitat requirements:

Altitude Below 1600 metres above sea level.
Light Young trees require some shade, but mature tree prefers full sunlight.
Temperature Mean annual temperature of 19 to 29 degrees Celsius.
Annual rainfall Between 1000 and 2400 mm, intolerant of drought lasting for more than 4 months.
Soil Well drained but moist soil with a pH of 4.3 to 8 and medium soil fertility. Intolerant of frost or drought lasting for more than 4 months.

 

Distribution:

Native to India and Malaysia.

Introduced range: Introduced but not invasive in central and eastern Africa, south-eastern Asia, the Caribbean, Florida, Brazil, Australia, Puerto Rico and many Pacific Islands.

 

Impacts:

Ecosystem: Does not grow and spread particularly fast, so is generally not considered to be invasive.

Health, social and economic: Produces very large, edible fruit. The fruit has a characteristic odour which can be a problem in urban areas.

 

Management:

Mechanical: Seedlings and saplings can be dug out.

Chemical: No information available.

Biological: Grazing animals eat jackfruit foliage, so could effectively control younger trees.

 

References:

California Rare Fruit Growers Inc, 1996. Available from http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/jackfruit.html (Accessed August 2006).

Elevitch, C.E. and Manner, H.I., 2006. Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Available from http://www.agroforestry.net/tti/A.heterophyllus-jackfruit.pdf (Accessed August 2006).

Duke, J.A., 1989. Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press LLC.


Last updated October 2006

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